Chinhoyi University of Technology
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Medical Alert : National Mass Treatment



National Mass Treatment

Campaign to Prevent Complications of

Lyphatic Filariasis (LF)



Lymphatic filariasis (LF), a mosquito-borne disease, is caused by the parasitic filarial nematodes (roundworms) Wuchereria bancrofti (W. bancrofti), Brugia malayi (B. malayi), or Brugia timori (B. timori). Because the burden of the disease is determined by the intensity and the duration of the infection, the greatest impact of LF is on older age groups. People with the disease can suffer from disfigurement and permanent disabilities due to lymphedema (swelling from fluid build-up caused by improper functioning of the lymph system). Elephantiasis is a crippling condition in which limbs or other parts of the body are grotesquely swollen or enlarged. In addition, people with the disease suffer from hidden internal damage to the kidneys and lymphatic system caused by the filariae. Furthermore, the psychological and social stigma associated with the disease is significant and can adversely affect productivity and quality of life.

Lymphatic filariasis results from parasitic worms that are transmitted by the bites of mosquitoes in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Several species of mosquitoes can transmit the disease. In rural Africa, the Anopheles mosquito is the primary carrier of both LF and malaria. In many urban areas of the affected countries, including India, Culex species is the major vector of W. bancrofti and B. malayi. On some Pacific Islands, Aedes aegyptii and Mansonia are vectors of B. malayi. The efficiency of parasitic transmission to humans differs according to the genera of mosquito. For instance, Anopheles mosquitoes are generally less efficient vectors of W. bancrofti than Culex mosquitoes.

Symptoms

Lympatic filariasis can cause a broad range of clinical manifestations, varying from people with no evident clinical disease to those with lymphedema and/or severe disfigurement of the extremities and genitalia. There is a huge potential of overlap in these symptom complexes, although an individual may also experience each at different times during his or her lifetime. The majority of people infected by LF in endemic areas have few visible clinical manifestations despite the large number of circulating microfilariae in peripheral blood. Although almost all of those infected show no clinical manifestations, they have some degree of subclinical disease, which includes microscopic hematuria and/or proteinuria, dilated and tortuous lymphatic vessels, and scrotal lymphangiectasia in men. Acute adenolymphangitis (ADL), characterized by sudden onset of high fever, painful lymph node, lymphatic inflammation, and transient local edema, is usually the first manifestation of LF, which usually occurs during adolescence. The retrograde nature of the lymphangitis distinguishes filarial-induced illness from bacterial-induced lymphangitis. Involvement of the genital lymphatics appears exclusively with W. bancrofti infection. Asymptomatic persons may have an ADL episode that lasted 4 to 7 days, with approximately one to three recurrences per year. However, in persons with pre-existing lymphatic disease of the affected extremities, episodes of ADL tend to be more severe and of longer duration. Filarial fever may occur as an episode of acute fever in the absence of inflammation of the lymphatics. In endemic areas, filarial fever may be confused with other febrile manifestations, especially malaria. Epidemiological context and laboratory findings often are supportive of the diagnostic. Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia (TPE) is a syndrome that develops in some persons in their 30s who are infected with either W. bancrofti or B. malayi. TPE affects more males than females (4-to-1 ratio), and the majority of cases have been reported in Southeast Asia, Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Brazil, and Guyana. Administration of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) leads to significant improvement in symptoms and an important decrease of eosinophilia as well as IgE. If not treated, TPE may progress to restrictive lung disease with interstitial fibrosis.

Graduates can be employed as professionals and managers in Government, NGOs, Universities, Colleges, Agro & Food-Industry, Private Sector, banking and International Organisations etc. Our graduates can also be self employed and become entrepreneurs and set up their own business ventures. The undergraduate degree programmes in the School of Agricultural Sciences and Technology are a good grounding for postgraduate studies in Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Management

Examples of Signs of Attack




Why is prevention is better than a cure?


Prevention is better than a cure because it literally prevents the discomfort and costs of becoming sick or experiencing a similar preventable event. It also often takes less effort to prevent something than to cure it, hence the popular expression "an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure."

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  • Classic Symptoms of the disease (LF)





    Staff Compliment at CUT Clinic

    Nurse in Charge

    Sister Bande
    (Midwife,HIV Test and Management, Community Development, Family Planning,Drug Forensic, Counselling)

    Deputy Nurse in Charge

    Sister P.Takawira
    (Midwife,Nurse Aid Education, Community Development, Family Planning,Drug Forensic, Counselling)

    Health Staff

    Mr. Pumhu
    (HIV Testing and Managment, Community Development)

    Health Staff

    Mrs. Mbedzi
    (Administration and Records)

    Health Staff

    Mr. Pumhu
    (HIV Testing and Managment, Community Development)